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Country/Region Organization Org. Type Target Population Recommendation Publication Date
Body energy/day
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Authoritative Body 0-6 months DHA: 0.1‐0.18%E 2008
6-24 months DHA: 10-12 mg/kg bw
2-4 years EPA + DHA: 100-150 mg
4-6 years EPA + DHA: 150-200 mg
6-10 years EPA + DHA: 200-250 mg
Pregnant/Lactating Women EPA + DHA: 0.3 g/d of which at least should be 0.2 g/d
International Society for the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids (ISSFAL) Expert Scientific Organization General adult population for cardiovascular health at least 500 mg/day of EPA+DHA 2004
Pregnant/Lactating Women DHA: 200 mg/day 2007
NATO Workshop on -3 and -6 Fatty Acids Workshop General Adult Population 300-400 mg EPA+DHA/day 1989
World Association of Perinatal Medicine4 Working Group Pregnant and Lactating Women 200 mg DHA/ day 2008
Infants, when breastfeeding is not possible 0.2-0.5% wt total fat
Organization
Country/Region Organization Org. Type Target Population Recommendation Publication Date
Australia National Heart Foundation of Australia Expert Scientific Organization General adult population to lower risk of CHD 500 mg EPA + DHA per day, obtained through fish, fish oil capsules, orenriched foods & drinks 2008
Patients with documented CHD 1000 mg EPA + DHA per day, obtained through
fish, fish oil capsules, or enriched foods & drinks
Patients with hypertriglyceridemia
  • 1200mg of EPA + DHA per
    day, obtained through
    fish, fish oil capsules or
    enriched foods & drinks
    as first-line therapy
  • Increase to 4000 mg of
    EPA +DHA per day, as
    needed.
Australian & New Zealand Health
Authorities (Department of Health &
Ageing, National Health & Medical
Research Council)
Authoritative Bodies Infants (0-12 mo) 0.5 g n-3 polyunsaturated fats/day adequate intake 2006
Boys & Girls (1-3 yrs) 40 mg total LC n-3 (DHA+EPA+DPA) / day adequate intake
Boys & Girls (4-8 yrs) 55 mg total LC n-3(DHA+EPA+DPA) / day adequate intake
Boys & Girls (9-13 yrs) 70 mg total LC n-3 (DHA+EPA+DPA) / day adequate intake
Boys (14-18 yrs) 125 mg total LC n-3 (DHA+EPA+DPA) / day adequate intake
Girls (14-18 yrs) 85 mg total LC n-3 (DHA+EPA+DPA) / day adequate intake
Men (19+ yrs) 160 mg total LC n-3 (DHA+EPA+DPA) per day adequate intake
Women (19+ yrs) 90 mg total LC n-3 (DHA+EPA+DPA) / day adequate intake
Women (19+ yrs) 90 mg total LC n-3 (DHA+EPA+DPA) / day adequate intake
Pregnancy (14-18 yrs) 110 mg total LC n-3 (DHA+EPA+DPA) / day
Pregnancy (19-50 yrs) 115 mg total LC n-3 (DHA+EPA+DPA) / day
Lactating (14-18 yrs)) 140 mg LC n-3(DHA+EPA+DPA) / day
Lactating (19-50 yrs) 145 mg LC n-3 (DHA+EPA+DPA) / day
Men-Suggested dietary
target to reduce chronic
disease risk
610mg LC n-3(DHA+EPA+DPA) / day
Women-Suggested
dietary target to reduce
chronic disease risk
430mg LC n-3 (DHA+EPA+DPA) / day
Country/Region Organization Org. Type Target Population Recommendation Publication Date
Europe Expert Workshop of tde European Academy of Nutritional Sciences Expert Scientific Organization General Adult Population People who do not eat fish should consider obtaining 200 mg EPA + DHA from otder sources 1998
European Food Safety Autdority Autdoritative Body General Adult Population 250mg EPA+DHA /day 2010
Pregnant & Lactating Women 100-200 mg DHA / day in addition to general adult requirements
Children 7-24 montds 100 mg DHA / day
Children 2-18 years 250mg EPA+DHA /day
The PeriLip and EARNEST projects of the European Commission Expert Scientific Organization Pregnant & Lactating Women 200mg DHA/day 2007
Task Force on the Management of ST-
Segment Elevation Acute Myocardial
Infarction of
the European Society of Cardiology9
Expert Scientific Organization
  • Increase consumption of omega-3 fatty acid (oily fish)
  • Supplementation with 1 g of fish oil in patients with a low intake of oily fish
  • omega-3 supplements should be considered in patients who do not tolerate statins, especially if TG >150 mg/dL (1.7 mmol/L)
2008
Task Force for the management of dyslipidaemias of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) Expert Scientific Organization General Adult Population for Cardiovascular Disease Risk Reduction At least two or three portions of fish per week 2011
Secondary prevention of CVD 1 g/day n-3 unsaturated fats, which is not easy to derive exclusively from natural food sources, and use of nutraceutical and/or pharmacological supplements may be considered
Country/Region Organization Org. Type Target Population Recommendation Publication Date
France AFFSA Authoritative Body General Adult Population
  • 500 mg EPA + DHA / day
  • 250 mg EPA / day
  • 250 mg DHA / day
2010
Metabolic Syndrome-Diabetes‐Obesity Risk Reduction 500 mg EPA + DHA / day
Cardiovascular Risk Reduction 500-750 mg EPA + DHA / day
Breast & Colon Cancer Risk Reduction 500 mg EPA + DHA / day
Neuropsychiatric Risk Reduction >200-300 mg EPA + DHA / day
Age-Related Macular Degeneration Risk Reduction 500 mg EPA + DHA / day
Infants (0-6 months)
  • 0.32% of fats from DHA
  • EPA < DHA
Infants & Toddlers (6 months to 3 years) 70mg DHA /day
Children (3-9 years)
  • 125mg DHA /day
  • 250mg EPA+DHA /day
Adolescents (9 to 18years)
  • 250mg DHA /day
  • 250mg EPA+DHA /day
Pregnant & Lactating Women
  • 250mg DHA /day
  • 250mg EPA+DHA /day
Austria Austrian Society for Nutrition Expert Scientific Organization General Adult Population 250mg LCPUFA / day for primary prevention of CVD 2008
General adult population 0.5% of energy total n-3 PUFA intake
CHD Patients 1g LCPUFA / day for secondary prevention of CVD
Pregnant & nursing women At least 200mg DHA / day
Germany German Society for Nutrition Expert Scientific Organization General Adult Population 250mg LCPUFA / day for primary prevention of CVD 2008
General adult population 0.5% of energy total n-3 PUFA intake
CHD Patients 1g LCPUFA / day for secondary prevention of CVD
Pregnant & nursing women At least 200mg DHA / day
Country/Region Organization Org. Type Target Population Recommendation Publication Date
Switzerland German Society for Nutrition Expert Scientific Organization General Adult Population 250mg LCPUFA / day for primary prevention of CVD 2008
General adult population 0.5% of energy total n-3 PUFA intake
CHD Patients 1g LCPUFA / day for secondary prevention of CVD
Pregnant & nursing women At least 200mg DHA / day
Poland Polish Gynecological Society Scientific Organization Pregnant Women
  • pregnant women at low risk of preterm birth should take at least 600 mg/day DHA
  • pregnant women at high risk of preterm birth should take at least 1000 mg/day DHA
2014
Belgium Superior Health Council of Belgium Authoritative Body Pregnant & nursing women 250mg DHA / day 2004
General adult population (primary cardioprevention) Two servings of fatty fish/wk
secondary cardioprevention 1g EPA+DHA per day
Netherlands Health Council of the Netherlands Authoritative Body 0-5 months DHA: 20 mg/kg/day 2001
6-11 months N-3 fatty acids from fish:15-20 mg/kg/day
1-18 years old N-3 fatty acids from fish:15-20 mg/kg/day
19 years + N-3 fatty acids from fish: 20 mg/kg/day
Pregnant women N-3 fatty acids from fish: 20 mg/kg/day
Lactating women N-3 fatty acids from fish: 20 mg/kg/day
Adults N-3 fatty acids from fish: 450 mg/kg/day 2006
United Kingdom British Nutrition Foundation Expert Scientific Organization Adults, 19-50 yrs
  • one to two portions of oil-rich fish per week, which will provide around 2-3g of the very long chain n-3 fatty acids
  • weekly intake of 1.5g of EPA + DHA
1999
Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy (COMA) Authoritative Body Adults
  • at least two portions of fish, of which one should be oily, weekly
  • n-3 PUFA intake: 0.2 g/day
1994
Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) Authoritative Body Adults
  • at least two portions of fish, of which one should be oily, weekly
  • n-3 PUFA intake: 0.45 g/day
2004
National Institute for Health and Authoritative Body People at high risk of or consume at least two 2008
Country/Region Organization Org. Type Target Population Recommendation Publication Date
Spain & Russia Spanish Society of Intensive Care Medicine and Coronary Units and Spanish Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition Expert Scientific Organization Individuals with acute coronary syndrome and patients with chronic heart failure Administration of 1 g/day of omega-3 (EPA+DHA) in the form of fish oil can prevent sudden death in the treatment of acute coronary syndrome and can also help to reduce hospital admission for cardiovascular events in patients with chronic heart failure 2011
Customs Union Commission Authoritative Body Adults
  • EPA 600 mg
  • DHA 700 mg
2010
Brazil Brazilian Society of Cardiology Expert Scientific Organization Patients with coronary artery disease supplementation of 1 g / day of omega-3 (EPA + DHA) capsules 2007
Brazilian Nutrology Association (ABRAN) Expert Scientific Organization Women who are pregnant or lactating 200 mg/day DHA 2014
Infants < 6 months 0.2 to 0.5% of total lipids as DHA 2014
United States Institute of Medicine Authoritative Body Boys & Girls 1-3 yrs ALA: 0.7 g/day of which ~ 10% EPA+DHA 2005
Boys & Girls 4-8 yrs ALA: 0.9 g/day of which ~ 10% EPA+DHA
Boys 9-13 yrs ALA: 1.2 g/day of which ~ 10% EPA+DHA
Boys 14-18 yrs ALA: 1.6 g/day of which ~ 10% EPA+DHA
Girls 9-13 yrs ALA: 1.0 g/day of which ~ 10% EPA+DHA
Girls 14-18 yrs ALA: 1.6 g/day of which ~ 10% EPA+DHA
Adult Men 19 yrs ALA: 1.6 g/day of which ~ 10% EPA+DHA
Adult Women 19 yrs ALA: 1.1 g/day of which ~ 10% EPA+DHA
Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (formerly American Dietetics Association) Expert Scientific Organization General Adult Population 500 mg EPA+DHA per day 2014
Varied Those with increased requirements (e.g., pregnant and lactating women or those with diseases associated with poor essential fatty acid status) or those at risk for poor conversion (e.g., people with diabetes) may benefit from direct sources of long-chain n‐3 fatty acids, such as DHA-rich microalgae 2003
March of Dimes Expert Scientific Organization Pregnant and Nursing
Women
200 mg DHA/day 2009
Omega‐3 Fatty Acids Subcommittee,
assembled by the Committee on
Research on Psychiatric Treatments
of the American Psychiatric
Association (APA)
Expert Scientific Organization Adults Eat fish >/= 2X/wk 2006
Patients with mood,
impulse control, or
psychotic disorders
1 g EPA + DHA / day
American Heart Association Expert Scientific Organization All adults without CHD Eat fish (particularly fatty
fish) at least two times a
week; include oils and foods rich in ALA
2002
General adult
Population
Fish with 500 mg or more
of EPA+DHA per 85 g (3
oz cooked) can apply for
the AHA Heart‐Check
food certification
program at
heartcheckmark.org.
unknown
Patients with CHD Consume approximately
1 g/day of EPA+DHA
preferably from oily fish.
EPA+DHA supplements
could be considered in
consultation with the
physician
2002
Patients with high
Triglycerides
2‐4 g/day EPA+DHA as
capsules under a
physician’s care
2002
Patients with high
Triglycerides
…increasing
consumption of marine‐
based omega‐3
products,…, will further
optimize triglyceride‐
lowering efforts.
2011
Cardiovascular Disease
Risk Reduction in
Women
  • Consume fish, especially
    oily fish, at least twice a
    week
  • Consumption of omega‐3
    fatty acids in the form of
    fish or in capsule form
    may be considered in
    women with
    hypercholesterolemia and/or
    hypertriglyceridemia for
    primary and secondary
    prevention
2011
Patients with Coronary
and Other
Atherosclerotic Vascular
Disease
For all patients, it may be
reasonable to
recommend omega‐3
fatty acids from fish or
fish oil capsules (1 g/d)
for CVD risk reduction
2011
American Academy of Pediatrics Expert Scientific Organization Nursing Women The mother’s diet should include an average daily intake of 200 to 300 mg of the ω‐3 long‐chain PUFAs (DHA) to guarantee a sufficient concentration of preformed DHA in the milk. Consumption of 1 to 2 portions of fish (e.g., herring, canned light tuna, salmon) per week will meet this need. The concern regarding the possible risk from intake of excessive mercury or other contaminants is offset by the neurobehavioral benefits of an adequate DHA intake and can be minimized by avoiding the intake of predatory fish (e.g., pike, marlin, mackerel, tile fish, swordfish). Poorly nourished mothers or those on selective vegan diets may require a supplement of DHA as well as multivitamins 2012
Country/Region Organization Org. Type Target Population Recommendation Publication Date
Canada Minister of National Health and Welfare, Canada Authoritative Body General adult population 1.2‐1.6 g/day total n‐3 PUFAs (ALA, EPA, DHA) 1990
Dietitians of Canada Expert Scientific Organization 500 mg n‐3 long‐chain PUFAs/day 2007
India Cardiology Society of India Expert Scientific Organization For patients with high triglycerides and patients after MI for secondary prevention Omega‐3 acid ethyl esters (2‐4g/day) 2012
China Chinese Nutrition Society Expert Scientific Organization 0 up to 4 years 100 mg/day DHA 2014
0 up to 4 years 100 mg/day DHA
18+ years 250 – 2000 mg /day EPA+DHA
Pregnant & lactating women 250 mg/day EPA+DHA of which 200 mg should be DHA
Japan Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare Authoritative Body 0‐5 months – boys and girls 0.9g total omega‐3 per day 2014
0‐5 months – boys and girls 0.9g total omega‐3 per day
6‐11 months‐ boys and girls 0.8g total omega‐3 per day
1‐2 years – Boys 0.7g total omega‐3 per day
1‐2 years – Girls 0.8g total omega‐3 per day
3‐5 years – Boys 1.3g total omega‐3 per day
3‐5 years – Girls 1.1g total omega‐3 per day
6‐7 years – Boys 1.4 total omega‐3 per day
6‐7 years –Girls 1.3g total omega‐3 per day
8‐9 years – Boys 1.7g total omega‐3 per day
8‐9 years – Girls 1.7g total omega‐3 per day
10‐11 years – Girls 1.5g total omega‐3 per day
12‐14 years – Girls 1.8g total omega‐3 per day
15‐17 years – Boys 2.3g total omega‐3 per day
15‐17 years – Girls 1.7g total omega‐3 per day
Adults (18‐29 years) – Men 2.0g total omega‐3 per day
18‐29 years – Women 1.6g total omega‐3 per day
30‐49 years – Men 2.1g total omega‐3 per day
30‐49 years – Women 1.6g total omega‐3 per day
50‐69 years – Men 2.4g total omega‐3 per day
50‐69 years – Women 2.0g total omega‐3 per day
Over 70 years – Men 2.2g total omega‐3 per day
Over 70 years – Women 2.2g total omega‐3 per day
Pregnant Women 1.8g total omega‐3 per day
Nursing Women 1.8g total omega‐3 per day
Acute ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Increased intake of omega 3 – fatty acids (1g daily) is beneficial. Eat fish at least twice a week.
Malaysia Ministry of Health Authoritative Body Women with CHD omega‐3‐fatty‐acids (>1gm/day) have been found to be beneficial 2007
Management of Dyslipidemia A dose of 3‐9 gm/day to lower TG levels.
A dose of 0.75‐1 gm/day as secondary prevention to prevent sudden death
2008
For people with high risk or secondary prevention 1000 mg EPA + DHA/day as supplement for people who don’t eat fish 2011
Israel Israel Heart Society Expert Scientific Organization For the general public or primary prevention 500‐1000 mg EPA + DHA/day as fish 2011

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